Binder异常解析

Posted by Gityuan on May 1, 2017

一. 概述

Android有时会抛出Binder相关的异常,比如DeadObjectException,TransactionTooLargeException等。 当遇到这些异常,到底是哪个环节出问题而抛出的呢?总共有哪些类型的异常会被抛出呢?

1.1 RemoteException

public class RemoteException extends AndroidException {

    //重新抛出RuntimeException
    public RuntimeException rethrowAsRuntimeException() {
        throw new RuntimeException(this);
    }

    public RuntimeException rethrowFromSystemServer() {
        if (this instanceof DeadObjectException) {
            throw new RuntimeException(new DeadSystemException());
        } else {
            throw new RuntimeException(this);
        }
    }
}

更多Android相关异常:

binderException

下面以startService为例来说明这个异常抛出过程。

二. 代理端

2.1 AMP.startService

[-> ContextImpl.java]

public ComponentName startService(Intent service) {
    return startServiceCommon(service, mUser);
}

private ComponentName startServiceCommon(Intent service, UserHandle user) {
    try {
        ...
        //通过AMS的代理去启动服务[2.2]
        ComponentName cn = ActivityManagerNative.getDefault().startService(
            mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), service, service.resolveTypeIfNeeded(
                        getContentResolver()), getOpPackageName(), user.getIdentifier());
        ...
        return cn;
    } catch (RemoteException e) {
        throw e.rethrowFromSystemServer(); //捕获异常并再抛出异常
    }
}

ActivityManagerNative.getDefault()获取的是ActivityManagerProxy对象,简称AMP。

2.2 AMP.startService

public ComponentName startService(IApplicationThread caller, Intent service,
            String resolvedType, String callingPackage, int userId) throws RemoteException
{
    Parcel data = Parcel.obtain();
    Parcel reply = Parcel.obtain();
    ...
    //[见小节2.3]
    mRemote.transact(START_SERVICE_TRANSACTION, data, reply, 0);
    //[见小节4.2]
    reply.readException();
    ...
}

App进程调用startService去启动服务,其中mRemote指向AMS服务的BinderProxy对象。

2.3 BP.transactNative

[-> Binder.java ::BinderProxy]

final class BinderProxy implements IBinder {
    public boolean transact(int code, Parcel data, Parcel reply, int flags) throws RemoteException {
        return transactNative(code, data, reply, flags);
    }
}

此时code=START_SERVICE_TRANSACTION, data和reply数据类型为Parcel, flags=0

2.4 android_os_BinderProxy_transact

[-> android_util_Binder.cpp]

static jboolean android_os_BinderProxy_transact(JNIEnv* env, jobject obj,
    jint code, jobject dataObj, jobject replyObj, jint flags)
{
    //抛异常
    if (dataObj == NULL) {
        jniThrowNullPointerException(env, NULL);
        return JNI_FALSE;
    } ;
    //抛异常
    IBinder* target = (IBinder*) env->GetLongField(obj, gBinderProxyOffsets.mObject);
    if (target == NULL) {
        jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/IllegalStateException", "Binder has been finalized!");
        return JNI_FALSE;
    }

    //Binder IPC过程[见小节2.5]
    status_t err = target->transact(code, *data, reply, flags);

    //解析异常[见小节4.1]
    signalExceptionForError(env, obj, err, true , data->dataSize());

}

这里会有异常抛出:

  • 当抛出异常NullPointerException: 代表dataObj为空, 意味着Java层传递下来的parcel data数据为空;
  • 当抛出异常IllegalStateException: 代表BpBinder为空,意味着Native层的BpBinder已经被释放;
  • 当进入signalExceptionForError(): 根据transact执行具体情况抛出相应的异常, 见小节[4.1].

2.5 BpBinder.transact

[-> BpBinder.cpp]

status_t BpBinder::transact(
    uint32_t code, const Parcel& data, Parcel* reply, uint32_t flags)
{
    if (mAlive) {
        //[见小节2.6]
        status_t status = IPCThreadState::self()->transact(
            mHandle, code, data, reply, flags);
        if (status == DEAD_OBJECT) mAlive = 0;
        return status;
    }
    return DEAD_OBJECT;
}

当binder死亡,则返回err=DEAD_OBJECT,所对应抛出的异常为DeadObjectException

2.6 IPC.transact

[-> IPCThreadState.cpp]

status_t IPCThreadState::transact(int32_t handle,
                                  uint32_t code, const Parcel& data,
                                  Parcel* reply, uint32_t flags)
{
    status_t err = data.errorCheck(); //错误检查
    flags |= TF_ACCEPT_FDS;

    if (err == NO_ERROR) {
        err = writeTransactionData(BC_TRANSACTION, flags, handle, code, data, NULL);
    }

    if (err != NO_ERROR) {
        if (reply) reply->setError(err);
        return (mLastError = err); //返回writeTransactionData的执行结果err
    }

    if ((flags & TF_ONE_WAY) == 0) {
        if (reply) {
            err = waitForResponse(reply); //[见小节2.7]
        } else {
            Parcel fakeReply;
            err = waitForResponse(&fakeReply);
        }
    } else {
        err = waitForResponse(NULL, NULL);
    }
    return err; //返回waitForResponse的执行结果err
}

返回值err的来源:

  • 返回err=DEAD_OBJECT
  • 返回writeTransactionData的执行结果err
  • 返回waitForResponse的执行结果err

2.7 IPC.waitForResponse

[-> IPCThreadState.cpp]

进入IPCThreadState::transact()方法, 向目标进程发起binder请求后,自己便会调用waitForResponse(),该方法会根据不同的响应码来获取响应的error.

status_t IPCThreadState::waitForResponse(Parcel *reply, status_t *acquireResult)
{
    uint32_t cmd;
    int32_t err;

    while (1) {
        // 向Binder驱动写入交互
        if ((err=talkWithDriver()) < NO_ERROR) break;
        err = mIn.errorCheck();
        ...
        switch (cmd) {

        case BR_DEAD_REPLY:
            err = DEAD_OBJECT;
            goto finish;

        case BR_FAILED_REPLY:
            err = FAILED_TRANSACTION;
            goto finish;

        default:
            err = executeCommand(cmd); //[见小节2.7.1]
            if (err != NO_ERROR) goto finish;
            break;
        }
    }
    ...
    return err;
}
  • 当收到BR_DEAD_REPLY,则抛出err=DEAD_OBJECT
  • 当收到BR_FAILED_REPLY, 则抛出err=FAILED_TRANSACTION.
  • 否则,返回的是executeCommand的err

2.7.1 IPC.executeCommand

    status_t IPCThreadState::executeCommand(int32_t cmd)
    {
        BBinder* obj;
        RefBase::weakref_type* refs;
        status_t result = NO_ERROR;

        switch ((uint32_t)cmd) {
        case BR_ERROR:
            //从mIn中读取出错误码
            result = mIn.readInt32();
            break;
        ...

        default:
            result = UNKNOWN_ERROR;
            break;
        }
        return result;
    }

小节2.7 talkWithDriver过程便会跟binder驱动交互

三. 服务端

见文章彻底理解Android Binder通信架构, 当服务端收到bindr请求,则此时进入execTransact()过程。

3.1 Binder.execTransact

[-> Binder.java]

private boolean execTransact(int code, long dataObj, long replyObj,
        int flags) {
    Parcel data = Parcel.obtain(dataObj);
    Parcel reply = Parcel.obtain(replyObj);

    boolean res;
    try {
        //执行onTransact方法[见小节3.1.1]
        res = onTransact(code, data, reply, flags);
    } catch (RemoteException e) {
        if ((flags & FLAG_ONEWAY) != 0) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Binder call failed.", e);
        } else {
            reply.setDataPosition(0);
            reply.writeException(e); //[见小节3.2]
        }
        res = true;
    } catch (RuntimeException e) {
        if ((flags & FLAG_ONEWAY) != 0) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Caught a RuntimeException from the binder stub implementation.", e);
        } else {
            reply.setDataPosition(0);
            reply.writeException(e); //[见小节3.2]
        }
        res = true;
    } catch (OutOfMemoryError e) {
        Log.e(TAG, "Caught an OutOfMemoryError from the binder stub implementation.", e);
        RuntimeException re = new RuntimeException("Out of memory", e);
        reply.setDataPosition(0);
        reply.writeException(re); //[见小节3.2]
        res = true;
    }
    //[见小节3.3]
    checkParcel(this, code, reply, "Unreasonably large binder reply buffer");
    reply.recycle();
    data.recycle();
    return res;
}

服务端会发送的异常有3大类:

  • RemoteException
  • RuntimeException
  • OutOfMemoryError

3.1.1 onTransact

public boolean onTransact(int code, Parcel data, Parcel reply, int flags)
          throws RemoteException {
    switch (code) {
      ...
    }
}

一般地,根据不同的code调用服务端不同的方法,在方法执行过程会可能会抛出各种不同的异常。

  • 服务端一旦抛出异常,在execTransact()过程会catch住异常,并将异常写入reply。
  • 代理端返回后从reply中读取异常。 这是抛出异常的常见情况。

3.2 writeException

public final void writeException(Exception e) {
    int code = 0;
    if (e instanceof SecurityException) {
        code = EX_SECURITY;
    } else if (e instanceof BadParcelableException) {
        code = EX_BAD_PARCELABLE;
    } else if (e instanceof IllegalArgumentException) {
        code = EX_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT;
    } else if (e instanceof NullPointerException) {
        code = EX_NULL_POINTER;
    } else if (e instanceof IllegalStateException) {
        code = EX_ILLEGAL_STATE;
    } else if (e instanceof NetworkOnMainThreadException) {
        code = EX_NETWORK_MAIN_THREAD;
    } else if (e instanceof UnsupportedOperationException) {
        code = EX_UNSUPPORTED_OPERATION;
    }
    writeInt(code); //写入异常码
    StrictMode.clearGatheredViolations();
    if (code == 0) {
        if (e instanceof RuntimeException) {
            throw (RuntimeException) e;
        }
        throw new RuntimeException(e);
    }
    writeString(e.getMessage());
}

此处写入的异常类型:

  • NullPointerException
  • SecurityException
  • BadParcelableException
  • IllegalArgumentException
  • IllegalStateException
  • NetworkOnMainThreadException
  • UnsupportedOperationException

3.3 checkParcel

static void checkParcel(IBinder obj, int code, Parcel parcel, String msg) {
     // 检查parcel数据是否大于800KB
     if (CHECK_PARCEL_SIZE && parcel.dataSize() >= 800*1024) {
         StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
         sb.append(msg);
         sb.append(": on ");
         sb.append(obj);
         sb.append(" calling ");
         sb.append(code);
         sb.append(" size ");
         sb.append(parcel.dataSize());
         sb.append(" (data: ");
         parcel.setDataPosition(0);
         sb.append(parcel.readInt());
         sb.append(", ");
         sb.append(parcel.readInt());
         sb.append(", ");
         sb.append(parcel.readInt());
         sb.append(")");
         Slog.wtfStack(TAG, sb.toString());
     }
 }

四. 异常解析

  • [小节2.4]过程调用signalExceptionForError(),且canThrowRemoteException=true
  • [小节2.2]过程调用Parcel.readException()

4.1 signalExceptionForError

[-> android_util_Binder.cpp]

void signalExceptionForError(JNIEnv* env, jobject obj, status_t err,
        bool canThrowRemoteException, int parcelSize)
{
    switch (err) {
        case UNKNOWN_ERROR:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException", "Unknown error");
            break;
        case NO_MEMORY:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/OutOfMemoryError", NULL);
            break;
        case INVALID_OPERATION:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/UnsupportedOperationException", NULL);
            break;
        case BAD_VALUE:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/IllegalArgumentException", NULL);
            break;
        case BAD_INDEX:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/IndexOutOfBoundsException", NULL);
            break;
        case BAD_TYPE:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/IllegalArgumentException", NULL);
            break;
        case NAME_NOT_FOUND:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/util/NoSuchElementException", NULL);
            break;
        case PERMISSION_DENIED:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/SecurityException", NULL);
            break;
        case NOT_ENOUGH_DATA:
            jniThrowException(env, "android/os/ParcelFormatException", "Not enough data");
            break;
        case NO_INIT:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException", "Not initialized");
            break;
        case ALREADY_EXISTS:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException", "Item already exists");
            break;
        case DEAD_OBJECT:
            jniThrowException(env, canThrowRemoteException
                    ? "android/os/DeadObjectException"
                            : "java/lang/RuntimeException", NULL);
            break;
        case UNKNOWN_TRANSACTION:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException", "Unknown transaction code");
            break;
        case FAILED_TRANSACTION: {
            ALOGE("!!! FAILED BINDER TRANSACTION !!!  (parcel size = %d)", parcelSize);
            const char* exceptionToThrow;
            char msg[128];
            //transaction失败的底层原因有可能很多种,这里无法确定是那种,后续binder driver会进一步完善
            if (canThrowRemoteException && parcelSize > 200*1024) {
                exceptionToThrow = "android/os/TransactionTooLargeException";
                snprintf(msg, sizeof(msg)-1, "data parcel size %d bytes", parcelSize);
            } else {
                exceptionToThrow = (canThrowRemoteException)
                        ? "android/os/DeadObjectException"
                        : "java/lang/RuntimeException";
                snprintf(msg, sizeof(msg)-1,
                        "Transaction failed on small parcel; remote process probably died");
            }
            jniThrowException(env, exceptionToThrow, msg);
        } break;
        case FDS_NOT_ALLOWED:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "Not allowed to write file descriptors here");
            break;
        case UNEXPECTED_NULL:
            jniThrowNullPointerException(env, NULL);
            break;
        case -EBADF:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "Bad file descriptor");
            break;
        case -ENFILE:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "File table overflow");
            break;
        case -EMFILE:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "Too many open files");
            break;
        case -EFBIG:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "File too large");
            break;
        case -ENOSPC:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "No space left on device");
            break;
        case -ESPIPE:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "Illegal seek");
            break;
        case -EROFS:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "Read-only file system");
            break;
        case -EMLINK:
            jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException",
                    "Too many links");
            break;
        default:
            ALOGE("Unknown binder error code. 0x%" PRIx32, err);
            String8 msg;
            msg.appendFormat("Unknown binder error code. 0x%" PRIx32, err);
            jniThrowException(env, canThrowRemoteException
                    ? "android/os/RemoteException" : "java/lang/RuntimeException", msg.string());
            break;
    }
}

该方法根据传入的err, 在native层通过jniThrowException来抛出不同的异常类型

4.2 Parcel.readException

[-> Parcel.java]

public final void readException() {
    int code = readExceptionCode(); //读取异常码
    if (code != 0) {
        String msg = readString(); //读取异常描述内容
        //[见小节4.2.1]
        readException(code, msg);
    }
}

4.2.1 readException

public final void readException(int code, String msg) {
    switch (code) {
        case EX_SECURITY:
            throw new SecurityException(msg);
        case EX_BAD_PARCELABLE:
            throw new BadParcelableException(msg);
        case EX_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT:
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(msg);
        case EX_NULL_POINTER:
            throw new NullPointerException(msg);
        case EX_ILLEGAL_STATE:
            throw new IllegalStateException(msg);
        case EX_NETWORK_MAIN_THREAD:
            throw new NetworkOnMainThreadException();
        case EX_UNSUPPORTED_OPERATION:
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException(msg);
    }
    throw new RuntimeException("Unknown exception code: " + code
            + " msg " + msg);
}

五. 总结

2.4 android_os_BinderProxy_transact()

  • 当抛出异常NullPointerException: 代表dataObj为空, 意味着Java层传递下来的parcel data数据为空;
  • 当抛出异常IllegalStateException: 代表BpBinder为空,意味着Native层的BpBinder已经被释放;
  • 当进入signalExceptionForError(): 根据transact执行具体情况抛出相应的异常, 见小节[4.1].

2.5 BpBinder.transact()

  • 当mAlive=false, 则抛出err=DEAD_OBJECT,所对应异常为DeadObjectException

2.7 IPC.waitForResponse()

  • 当收到BR_DEAD_REPLY,则抛出err=DEAD_OBJECT:
    • 则抛出异常为DeadObjectException
  • 当收到BR_FAILED_REPLY, 则抛出err=FAILED_TRANSACTION:
    • 当parcelSize > 200M, 则抛出TransactionTooLargeException,异常内容为”data parcel size %d bytes”;
    • 当parcelSize <= 200M, 则抛出DeadObjectException,异常内容为”Transaction failed on small parcel; remote process probably died”;

说明:

FAILED_TRANSACTION,这是所有exception中可能出现频率最高的,即便抛出TransactionTooLargeException,并不意味着就是transaction数据太大, 有可能是transaction异常,或者FD关闭, 这个应该需要进一步细化详细的异常情况. 当parcelSize <= 200M时抛出FAILED_TRANSACTION异常, Google根据大量实践经验得出往往都是在binder transaction正在途中时, 远程进程正好死亡而导致的.

5.1 signalExceptionForError

错误码跟Exception的对应关系:

错误码 Exception 描述信息
NO_MEMORY OutOfMemoryError  
INVALID_OPERATION UnsupportedOperationException  
BAD_VALUE IllegalArgumentException  
BAD_INDEX IndexOutOfBoundsException  
BAD_TYPE IllegalArgumentException  
NAME_NOT_FOUND NoSuchElementException  
PERMISSION_DENIED SecurityException  
NOT_ENOUGH_DATA ParcelFormatException Not enough data

前面这些各种异常,描述信息一般为空。接下来,再来看看常见的RuntimeException类别:

错误码 描述信息
UNKNOWN_ERROR Unknown error
NO_INIT Not initialized
ALREADY_EXISTS Item already exists
UNKNOWN_TRANSACTION Unknown transaction code
FDS_NOT_ALLOWED Not allowed to write file descriptors here
-EBADF Bad file descriptor
-ENFILE File table overflow
-EMFILE Too many open files
-EFBIG File too large
-ENOSPC No space left on device
-ESPIPE Illegal seek
-EROFS Read-only file system
-EMLINK Too many links

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