startService启动过程分析

Posted by Gityuan on March 6, 2016

基于Android 6.0的源码剖析, 分析android Service启动流程,相关源码:

frameworks/base/services/core/java/com/android/server/am/
  - ActivityManagerService.java
  - ActiveServices.java
  - ServiceRecord.java
  - ProcessRecord.java

frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/
  - IActivityManager.java
  - ActivityManagerNative.java (内含AMP)
  - ActivityManager.java
  
  - IApplicationThread.java
  - ApplicationThreadNative.java (内含ATP)
  - ActivityThread.java (内含ApplicationThread)
  
  - ContextImpl.java

一、概述

看过前面介绍Binder系列文章,相信对Binder架构有了较深地理解。在Android系统启动-开篇中讲述了Binder的地位是非常之重要,整个Java framework的提供ActivityManagerService、PackageManagerService等服务都是基于Binder架构来通信的,另外 handle消息机制在进程内的通信使用非常多。本文将开启对ActivityManagerService的分析。

ActivityManagerService是Android的Java framework的服务框架最重要的服务之一。对于Andorid的Activity、Service、Broadcast、ContentProvider四剑客的管理,包含其生命周期都是通过ActivityManagerService来完成的。对于这四剑客的介绍,此处先略过,后续博主会针对这4剑客分别阐述。

1.1 类图

下面先看看ActivityManagerService相关的类图:

activity_manager_classes

单单就一个ActivityManagerService.java文件就代码超过2万行,我们需要需要一个线,再结合binder的知识,来把我们想要了解的东西串起来,那么本文将从App启动的视角来分析ActivityManagerService。

1.2 流程图

在app中启动一个service,就一行语句搞定,

startService(); //或 binderService()

该过程如下:

start_service

当App通过调用Android API方法startService()或binderService()来生成并启动服务的过程,主要是由ActivityManagerService来完成的。

  1. ActivityManagerService通过Socket通信方式向Zygote进程请求生成(fork)用于承载服务的进程ActivityThread。此处讲述启动远程服务的过程,即服务运行于单独的进程中,对于运行本地服务则不需要启动服务的过程。ActivityThread是应用程序的主线程;
  2. Zygote通过fork的方法,将zygote进程复制生成新的进程,并将ActivityThread相关的资源加载到新进程;
  3. ActivityManagerService向新生成的ActivityThread进程,通过Binder方式发送生成服务的请求;
  4. ActivityThread启动运行服务,这便于服务启动的简易过程,真正流程远比这服务;

启动服务的流程图:

点击查看大图

Seq_start_service

图中涉及的首字母缩写:

  • AMP:ActivityManagerProxy
  • AMN:ActivityManagerNative
  • AMS:ActivityManagerService
  • AT:ApplicationThread
  • ATP:ApplicationThreadProxy
  • ATN:ApplicationThreadNative

接下来,我们正式从代码角度来分析服务启动的过程。首先在我们应用程序的Activity类的调用startService()方法,该方法调用【流程1】的方法。

二. 发起进程端

1. CW.startService

[-> ContextWrapper.java]

public class ContextWrapper extends Context {
    public ComponentName startService(Intent service) {
        return mBase.startService(service); //其中mBase为ContextImpl对象 【见流程2】
    }
}

2. CI.startService

[-> ContextImpl.java]

class ContextImpl extends Context {
    @Override
    public ComponentName startService(Intent service) {
        //当system进程调用此方法时输出warn信息,system进程建立调用startServiceAsUser方法
        warnIfCallingFromSystemProcess();
        return startServiceCommon(service, mUser); //【见流程3】
    }

3. CI.startServiceCommon

[-> ContextImpl.java]

private ComponentName startServiceCommon(Intent service, UserHandle user) {
    try {
        //检验service,当service为空则throw异常
        validateServiceIntent(service);
        service.prepareToLeaveProcess();
        // 调用ActivityManagerNative类 【见流程3.1以及流程4】
        ComponentName cn = ActivityManagerNative.getDefault().startService(
            mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), service, service.resolveTypeIfNeeded(getContentResolver()), getOpPackageName(), user.getIdentifier());
        if (cn != null) {
            if (cn.getPackageName().equals("!")) {
                throw new SecurityException("Not allowed to start service " +
                    service + " without permission " + cn.getClassName());
            } else if (cn.getPackageName().equals("!!")) {
                throw new SecurityException("Unable to start service " +
                    service  ": " + cn.getClassName());
            }
        }
        return cn;
    } catch (RemoteException e) {
        throw new RuntimeException("Failure from system", e);
    }
}

3.1 AMN.getDefault

[-> ActivityManagerNative.java]

static public IActivityManager getDefault() {
    return gDefault.get();
}

gDefault为Singleton类型对象,此次采用单例模式,mInstance为IActivityManager类的代理对象,即ActivityManagerProxy。

public abstract class Singleton<T> {
    public final T get() {
        synchronized (this) {
            if (mInstance == null) {
                //首次调用create()来获取AMP对象
                mInstance = create();
            }
            return mInstance;
        }
    }
}

再来看看create()的过程:

private static final Singleton<IActivityManager> gDefault = new Singleton<IActivityManager>() {
    protected IActivityManager create() {
        //获取名为"activity"的服务,服务都注册到ServiceManager来统一管理
        IBinder b = ServiceManager.getService("activity");
        IActivityManager am = asInterface(b);
        return am;
    }
};

该方法返回的是ActivityManagerProxy对象,那么下一步调用ActivityManagerProxy.startService()方法。

通过Binder通信过程中,提供了一个IActivityManager服务接口,ActivityManagerProxy类与ActivityManagerService类都实现了IActivityManager接口。ActivityManagerProxy作为binder通信的客户端,ActivityManagerService作为binder通信的服务端,根据Binder系列文章,ActivityManagerProxy.startService()最终调用ActivityManagerService.startService(),整个流程图如下:

Activity_Manager_Service

4. AMP.startService

该类位于文件ActivityManagerNative.java

public ComponentName startService(IApplicationThread caller, Intent service,
            String resolvedType, String callingPackage, int userId) throws RemoteException
{
    Parcel data = Parcel.obtain();
    Parcel reply = Parcel.obtain();
    data.writeInterfaceToken(IActivityManager.descriptor);
    data.writeStrongBinder(caller != null ? caller.asBinder() : null);
    service.writeToParcel(data, 0);
    data.writeString(resolvedType);
    data.writeString(callingPackage);
    data.writeInt(userId);
    //通过Binder 传递数据 【见流程5】
    mRemote.transact(START_SERVICE_TRANSACTION, data, reply, 0);
    reply.readException();
    ComponentName res = ComponentName.readFromParcel(reply);
    data.recycle();
    reply.recycle();
    return res;
}

mRemote.transact()是binder通信的客户端发起方法,经过binder驱动,最后回到binder服务端ActivityManagerNative的onTransact()方法。

三. system_server端

借助于AMP/AMN这对Binder对象,便完成了从发起端所在进程到system_server的调用过程

5. AMN.onTransact

@Override
public boolean onTransact(int code, Parcel data, Parcel reply, int flags)
        throws RemoteException {
    switch (code) {
    ...
     case START_SERVICE_TRANSACTION: {
        data.enforceInterface(IActivityManager.descriptor);
        IBinder b = data.readStrongBinder();
        //生成ApplicationThreadNative的代理对象,即ApplicationThreadProxy对象
        IApplicationThread app = ApplicationThreadNative.asInterface(b);
        Intent service = Intent.CREATOR.createFromParcel(data);
        String resolvedType = data.readString();
        String callingPackage = data.readString();
        int userId = data.readInt();
        //调用ActivityManagerService的startService()方法【见流程6】
        ComponentName cn = startService(app, service, resolvedType, callingPackage, userId);
        reply.writeNoException();
        ComponentName.writeToParcel(cn, reply);
        return true;
    }
}

在整个调用过程涉及两个进程,不妨令startService的发起进程记为进程A,ServiceManagerService记为进程B;那么进程A通过Binder机制(采用IActivityManager接口)向进程B发起请求服务,进程B则通过Binder机制(采用IApplicationThread接口)向进程A发起请求服务。也就是说进程A与进程B能相互间主动发起请求,进程通信。

这里涉及IApplicationThread,那么下面直接把其相关的类图展示如下:

application_thread_classes

与IActivityManager的binder通信原理一样,ApplicationThreadProxy作为binder通信的客户端,ApplicationThreadNative作为Binder通信的服务端,其中ApplicationThread继承ApplicationThreadNative类,覆写其中的部分方法。

6. AMS.startService

@Override
public ComponentName startService(IApplicationThread caller, Intent service,
        String resolvedType, String callingPackage, int userId)
        throws TransactionTooLargeException {
    //当调用者是孤立进程,则抛出异常。
    enforceNotIsolatedCaller("startService");

    if (service != null && service.hasFileDescriptors() == true) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("File descriptors passed in Intent");
    }
    if (callingPackage == null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("callingPackage cannot be null");
    }
    if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE,
            "startService: " + service + " type=" + resolvedType);

    synchronized(this) {
        final int callingPid = Binder.getCallingPid(); //调用者pid
        final int callingUid = Binder.getCallingUid(); //调用者uid
        final long origId = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        //此次的mServices为ActiveServices对象 【见流程7】
        ComponentName res = mServices.startServiceLocked(caller, service,
                resolvedType, callingPid, callingUid, callingPackage, userId);
        Binder.restoreCallingIdentity(origId);
        return res;
    }
}

该方法参数说明:

  • caller:IApplicationThread类型,复杂处理
  • service:Intent类型,包含需要运行的service信息
  • resolvedType:String类型
  • callingPackage: String类型,调用该方法的package
  • userId: int类型,用户的id

7. AS.startServiceLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

ComponentName startServiceLocked(IApplicationThread caller, Intent service, String resolvedType,
        int callingPid, int callingUid, String callingPackage, int userId)
        throws TransactionTooLargeException {

    final boolean callerFg;
    if (caller != null) {
        final ProcessRecord callerApp = mAm.getRecordForAppLocked(caller);
        if (callerApp == null)
            throw new SecurityException(""); //抛出异常,此处省略异常字符串
        callerFg = callerApp.setSchedGroup != Process.THREAD_GROUP_BG_NONINTERACTIVE;
    } else {
        callerFg = true;
    }
    //检索服务信息
    ServiceLookupResult res =  retrieveServiceLocked(service, resolvedType, callingPackage,
                callingPid, callingUid, userId, true, callerFg);
    if (res == null) {
        return null;
    }
    if (res.record == null) {
        return new ComponentName("!", res.permission != null
                ? res.permission : "private to package");
    }
    ServiceRecord r = res.record;
    if (!mAm.getUserManagerLocked().exists(r.userId)) { //检查是否存在启动服务的user
        return null;
    }
    NeededUriGrants neededGrants = mAm.checkGrantUriPermissionFromIntentLocked(
            callingUid, r.packageName, service, service.getFlags(), null, r.userId);

    r.lastActivity = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
    r.startRequested = true;
    r.delayedStop = false;
    r.pendingStarts.add(new ServiceRecord.StartItem(r, false, r.makeNextStartId(),
            service, neededGrants));
    final ServiceMap smap = getServiceMap(r.userId);
    boolean addToStarting = false;
    //对于非前台进程的调度
    if (!callerFg && r.app == null && mAm.mStartedUsers.get(r.userId) != null) {
        ProcessRecord proc = mAm.getProcessRecordLocked(r.processName, r.appInfo.uid, false);
        if (proc == null || proc.curProcState > ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_RECEIVER) {
            if (r.delayed) {  //已计划延迟启动
                return r.name;
            }
            if (smap.mStartingBackground.size() >= mMaxStartingBackground) {
                //当超出 同一时间允许后续启动的最大服务数,则将该服务加入延迟启动的队列。
                smap.mDelayedStartList.add(r);
                r.delayed = true;
                return r.name;
            }
            addToStarting = true;
        } else if (proc.curProcState >= ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_SERVICE) {
            //将新的服务加入到后台启动队列,该队列也包含当前正在运行其他services或者receivers的进程
            addToStarting = true;
        }
    }
    //【见流程8】
    return startServiceInnerLocked(smap, service, r, callerFg, addToStarting);
}

有一种重要的标记符callerFg, 用于标记是前台还是后台:

  • 当发起方进程不等于Process.THREAD_GROUP_BG_NONINTERACTIVE,或者发起方为空, 则callerFg= true;
  • 否则,callerFg= false;

8. AS.startServiceInnerLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

ComponentName startServiceInnerLocked(ServiceMap smap, Intent service, ServiceRecord r,
        boolean callerFg, boolean addToStarting) throws TransactionTooLargeException {
    ProcessStats.ServiceState stracker = r.getTracker();
    if (stracker != null) {
        stracker.setStarted(true, mAm.mProcessStats.getMemFactorLocked(), r.lastActivity);
    }
    r.callStart = false;
    synchronized (r.stats.getBatteryStats()) {
        r.stats.startRunningLocked(); //用于耗电统计,开启运行的状态
    }
    //【见流程9】
    String error = bringUpServiceLocked(r, service.getFlags(), callerFg, false);
    if (error != null) {
        return new ComponentName("!!", error);
    }
    if (r.startRequested && addToStarting) {
        boolean first = smap.mStartingBackground.size() == 0;
        smap.mStartingBackground.add(r);
        r.startingBgTimeout = SystemClock.uptimeMillis() + BG_START_TIMEOUT;
        if (first) {
            smap.rescheduleDelayedStarts();
        }
    } else if (callerFg) {
        smap.ensureNotStartingBackground(r);
    }
    return r.name;
}

9. AS.bringUpServiceLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

private final String bringUpServiceLocked(ServiceRecord r, int intentFlags, boolean execInFg,
        boolean whileRestarting) throws TransactionTooLargeException {
    if (r.app != null && r.app.thread != null) {
        //调用service.onStartCommand()过程
        sendServiceArgsLocked(r, execInFg, false);
        return null;
    }
    if (!whileRestarting && r.restartDelay > 0) {
        return null; //等待延迟重启的过程,则直接返回
    }

    // 启动service前,把service从重启服务队列中移除
    if (mRestartingServices.remove(r)) {
        r.resetRestartCounter();
        clearRestartingIfNeededLocked(r);
    }
    //service正在启动,将delayed设置为false
    if (r.delayed) {
        getServiceMap(r.userId).mDelayedStartList.remove(r);
        r.delayed = false;
    }

    //确保拥有该服务的user已经启动,否则停止;
    if (mAm.mStartedUsers.get(r.userId) == null) {
        String msg = "";
        bringDownServiceLocked(r);
        return msg;
    }
    //服务正在启动,设置package停止状态为false
    AppGlobals.getPackageManager().setPackageStoppedState(
            r.packageName, false, r.userId);

    final boolean isolated = (r.serviceInfo.flags&ServiceInfo.FLAG_ISOLATED_PROCESS) != 0;
    final String procName = r.processName;
    ProcessRecord app;
    if (!isolated) {
        //根据进程名和uid,查询ProcessRecord
        app = mAm.getProcessRecordLocked(procName, r.appInfo.uid, false);
        if (app != null && app.thread != null) {
            try {
                app.addPackage(r.appInfo.packageName, r.appInfo.versionCode, mAm.mProcessStats);
                // 启动服务 【见流程10】
                realStartServiceLocked(r, app, execInFg);
                return null;
            } catch (TransactionTooLargeException e) {
                throw e;
            } catch (RemoteException e) {
                Slog.w(TAG, "Exception when starting service " + r.shortName, e);
            }
        }
    } else {
        app = r.isolatedProc;
    }

    //对于进程没有启动的情况
    if (app == null) {
        //启动service所要运行的进程 【见流程9.1】
        if ((app=mAm.startProcessLocked(procName, r.appInfo, true, intentFlags,
                "service", r.name, false, isolated, false)) == null) {
            String msg = ""
            bringDownServiceLocked(r); // 进程启动失败
            return msg;
        }
        if (isolated) {
            r.isolatedProc = app;
        }
    }
    if (!mPendingServices.contains(r)) {
        mPendingServices.add(r);
    }
    if (r.delayedStop) {
        r.delayedStop = false;
        if (r.startRequested) {
            stopServiceLocked(r); //停止服务
        }
    }
    return null;
}
  • 当目标进程已存在,则直接执行realStartServiceLocked();
  • 当目标进程不存在,则先执行startProcessLocked创建进程, 经过层层调用最后会调用到AMS.attachApplicationLocked, 然后再执行realStartServiceLocked()。

对于非前台进程调用而需要启动的服务,如果已经有其他的后台服务正在启动中,那么我们可能希望延迟其启动。这是用来避免启动同时启动过多的进程(非必须的)。

9.1 AMS.attachApplicationLocked

[-> ActivityManagerService.java]

private final boolean attachApplicationLocked(IApplicationThread thread,
        int pid) {
    ...
    thread.bindApplication(processName, appInfo, providers, app.instrumentationClass,
            profilerInfo, app.instrumentationArguments, app.instrumentationWatcher,
            app.instrumentationUiAutomationConnection, testMode, enableOpenGlTrace,
            isRestrictedBackupMode || !normalMode, app.persistent,
            new Configuration(mConfiguration), app.compat,
            getCommonServicesLocked(app.isolated),
            mCoreSettingsObserver.getCoreSettingsLocked());

    ...
    if (!badApp) {
        try {
            //寻找所有需要在该进程中运行的服务 【见流程9.2】
            didSomething |= mServices.attachApplicationLocked(app, processName);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            badApp = true;
        }
    }
    ...
    return true;
}

9.2 AS.attachApplicationLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

boolean attachApplicationLocked(ProcessRecord proc, String processName)
        throws RemoteException {
    boolean didSomething = false;
    //启动mPendingServices队列中,等待在该进程启动的服务
    if (mPendingServices.size() > 0) {
        ServiceRecord sr = null;
        try {
            for (int i=0; i<mPendingServices.size(); i++) {
                sr = mPendingServices.get(i);
                if (proc != sr.isolatedProc && (proc.uid != sr.appInfo.uid
                        || !processName.equals(sr.processName))) {
                    continue;
                }
                mPendingServices.remove(i);
                i--;
                // 将当前服务的包信息加入到proc
                proc.addPackage(sr.appInfo.packageName, sr.appInfo.versionCode,
                        mAm.mProcessStats);
                // 启动服务,即将进入服务的生命周期 【见流程10】
                realStartServiceLocked(sr, proc, sr.createdFromFg);
                didSomething = true;
            }
        } catch (RemoteException e) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Exception in new application when starting service "
                    + sr.shortName, e);
            throw e;
        }
    }
    // 对于正在等待重启并需要运行在该进程的服务,现在是启动它们的大好时机
    if (mRestartingServices.size() > 0) {
        ServiceRecord sr = null;
        for (int i=0; i<mRestartingServices.size(); i++) {
            sr = mRestartingServices.get(i);
            if (proc != sr.isolatedProc && (proc.uid != sr.appInfo.uid
                    || !processName.equals(sr.processName))) {
                continue;
            }
            mAm.mHandler.removeCallbacks(sr.restarter);
            mAm.mHandler.post(sr.restarter);
        }
    }
    return didSomething;
}
  • 当需要创建新进程,则创建后经历过attachApplicationLocked,则会再调用realStartServiceLocked();
  • 当不需要创建进程, 即在[流程9]中直接就进入了realStartServiceLocked();

10. AS.realStartServiceLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

private final void realStartServiceLocked(ServiceRecord r,
        ProcessRecord app, boolean execInFg) throws RemoteException {
    ...

    r.app = app;
    r.restartTime = r.lastActivity = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
    final boolean newService = app.services.add(r);

    //发送delay消息【见流程10.1】
    bumpServiceExecutingLocked(r, execInFg, "create");
    mAm.updateLruProcessLocked(app, false, null);
    mAm.updateOomAdjLocked();
    boolean created = false;
    try {
        synchronized (r.stats.getBatteryStats()) {
            r.stats.startLaunchedLocked();
        }
        mAm.ensurePackageDexOpt(r.serviceInfo.packageName);
        app.forceProcessStateUpTo(ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_SERVICE);
        //服务进入 onCreate() 【见流程11】
        app.thread.scheduleCreateService(r, r.serviceInfo,
                mAm.compatibilityInfoForPackageLocked(r.serviceInfo.applicationInfo),
                app.repProcState);
        r.postNotification();
        created = true;
    } catch (DeadObjectException e) {
        mAm.appDiedLocked(app); //应用死亡处理
        throw e;
    } finally {
        if (!created) {
            final boolean inDestroying = mDestroyingServices.contains(r);
            serviceDoneExecutingLocked(r, inDestroying, inDestroying);
            if (newService) {
                app.services.remove(r);
                r.app = null;
            }
            //尝试重新启动服务
            if (!inDestroying) {
                scheduleServiceRestartLocked(r, false);
            }
        }
    }
    requestServiceBindingsLocked(r, execInFg);
    updateServiceClientActivitiesLocked(app, null, true);

    if (r.startRequested && r.callStart && r.pendingStarts.size() == 0) {
        r.pendingStarts.add(new ServiceRecord.StartItem(r, false, r.makeNextStartId(),
                null, null));
    }
    //服务 进入onStartCommand() 【见流程17】
    sendServiceArgsLocked(r, execInFg, true);
    if (r.delayed) {
        getServiceMap(r.userId).mDelayedStartList.remove(r);
        r.delayed = false;
    }
    if (r.delayedStop) {
        r.delayedStop = false;
        if (r.startRequested) {
            stopServiceLocked(r); //停止服务
        }
    }
}

在bumpServiceExecutingLocked会发送一个延迟处理的消息SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG。在方法scheduleCreateService执行完成,也就是onCreate回调执行完成之后,便会remove掉该消息。但是如果没能在延时时间之内remove该消息,则会进入执行service timeout流程。

10.1 AS.bumpServiceExecutingLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

private final void bumpServiceExecutingLocked(ServiceRecord r, boolean fg, String why) {
    long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
    if (r.executeNesting == 0) {
        r.executeFg = fg;
        ...
        if (r.app != null) {
            r.app.executingServices.add(r);
            r.app.execServicesFg |= fg;
            if (r.app.executingServices.size() == 1) {
                scheduleServiceTimeoutLocked(r.app);
            }
        }
    } else if (r.app != null && fg && !r.app.execServicesFg) {
        r.app.execServicesFg = true;
        //[见流程10.2]
        scheduleServiceTimeoutLocked(r.app);
    }
    r.executeFg |= fg;
    r.executeNesting++;
    r.executingStart = now;
}

10.2 scheduleServiceTimeoutLocked

void scheduleServiceTimeoutLocked(ProcessRecord proc) {
    if (proc.executingServices.size() == 0 || proc.thread == null) {
        return;
    }
    long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
    Message msg = mAm.mHandler.obtainMessage(
            ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG);
    msg.obj = proc;
    //当超时后仍没有remove该SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG消息,则执行service Timeout流程
    mAm.mHandler.sendMessageAtTime(msg,
            proc.execServicesFg ? (now+SERVICE_TIMEOUT) : (now+ SERVICE_BACKGROUND_TIMEOUT));
}

发送延时消息SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG,延时时长:

  • 对于前台服务,则超时为SERVICE_TIMEOUT,即timeout=20s;
  • 对于后台服务,则超时为SERVICE_BACKGROUND_TIMEOUT,即timeout=200s;

11. ATP.scheduleCreateService

[-> ApplicationThreadProxy.java]

public final void scheduleCreateService(IBinder token, ServiceInfo info,
        CompatibilityInfo compatInfo, int processState) throws RemoteException {
    Parcel data = Parcel.obtain();
    data.writeInterfaceToken(IApplicationThread.descriptor);
    data.writeStrongBinder(token);
    info.writeToParcel(data, 0);
    compatInfo.writeToParcel(data, 0);
    data.writeInt(processState);
    try {
        //【见流程12】
        mRemote.transact(SCHEDULE_CREATE_SERVICE_TRANSACTION, data, null, IBinder.FLAG_ONEWAY);
    } catch (TransactionTooLargeException e) {
        throw e;
    }
    data.recycle();
}

四. 目标进程端

借助于ATP/ATN这对Binder对象,便完成了从system_server所在进程到Service所在进程调用过程

12. ATN.onTransact

[-> ApplicationThreadNative.java]

public boolean onTransact(int code, Parcel data, Parcel reply, int flags)
        throws RemoteException {
    switch (code) {
    case SCHEDULE_CREATE_SERVICE_TRANSACTION: {
        data.enforceInterface(IApplicationThread.descriptor);
        IBinder token = data.readStrongBinder();
        ServiceInfo info = ServiceInfo.CREATOR.createFromParcel(data);
        CompatibilityInfo compatInfo = CompatibilityInfo.CREATOR.createFromParcel(data);
        int processState = data.readInt();
        // 【见流程13】
        scheduleCreateService(token, info, compatInfo, processState);
        return true;
    }
    ...
}

13. AT.scheduleCreateService

[-> ApplicationThread.java]

public final void scheduleCreateService(IBinder token,
            ServiceInfo info, CompatibilityInfo compatInfo, int processState) {
    updateProcessState(processState, false);
    CreateServiceData s = new CreateServiceData(); //准备服务创建所需的数据
    s.token = token;
    s.info = info;
    s.compatInfo = compatInfo;
    //发送消息 【见流程14】
    sendMessage(H.CREATE_SERVICE, s);
}

该方法的执行在ActivityThread线程

14. handleMessage

[-> ActivityThread.java ::H]

public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
    switch (msg.what) {
        ...
        case CREATE_SERVICE:
            handleCreateService((CreateServiceData)msg.obj); //【见流程15】
            break;
        case BIND_SERVICE:
            handleBindService((BindServiceData)msg.obj);
            break;
        case UNBIND_SERVICE:
            handleUnbindService((BindServiceData)msg.obj);
            break;
        case SERVICE_ARGS:
            handleServiceArgs((ServiceArgsData)msg.obj);  // serviceStart
            break;
        case STOP_SERVICE:
            handleStopService((IBinder)msg.obj);
            maybeSnapshot();
            break;
        ...
    }
}

15. AT.handleCreateService

[-> ActivityThread.java]

private void handleCreateService(CreateServiceData data) {
    //当应用处于后台即将进行GC,而此时被调回到活动状态,则跳过本次gc。
    unscheduleGcIdler();
    LoadedApk packageInfo = getPackageInfoNoCheck(data.info.applicationInfo, data.compatInfo);

    java.lang.ClassLoader cl = packageInfo.getClassLoader();
    //通过反射创建目标服务对象
    Service service = (Service) cl.loadClass(data.info.name).newInstance();
    ...

    try {
        //创建ContextImpl对象
        ContextImpl context = ContextImpl.createAppContext(this, packageInfo);
        context.setOuterContext(service);
        //创建Application对象
        Application app = packageInfo.makeApplication(false, mInstrumentation);
        service.attach(context, this, data.info.name, data.token, app,
                ActivityManagerNative.getDefault());
        //调用服务onCreate()方法 【见流程15.1】
        service.onCreate();
        mServices.put(data.token, service);
        //调用服务创建完成【见流程16】
        ActivityManagerNative.getDefault().serviceDoneExecuting(
                data.token, SERVICE_DONE_EXECUTING_ANON, 0, 0);
    } catch (Exception e) {
        ...
    }
}

15.1 Service.onCreate

public abstract class Service extends ContextWrapper implements ComponentCallbacks2 {
    public void onCreate(){    }
}

最终调用Service.onCreate()方法,对于目标服务都是继承于Service,并覆写该方式,调用目标服务的onCreate()方法。拨云见日,到此总算是进入了Service的生命周期。

16 AMS.serviceDoneExecuting

public void serviceDoneExecuting(IBinder token, int type, int startId, int res) {
    synchronized(this) {
        ...
        // [见流程16.1]
        mServices.serviceDoneExecutingLocked((ServiceRecord)token, type, startId, res);
    }
}

由[流程10.1]的bumpServiceExecutingLocked()发送一个延时消息SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG

16.1 AS.serviceDoneExecutingLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

void serviceDoneExecutingLocked(ServiceRecord r, int type, int startId, int res) {
    boolean inDestroying = mDestroyingServices.contains(r);
    if (r != null) {
        ...
        final long origId = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        // [见流程16.2]
        serviceDoneExecutingLocked(r, inDestroying, inDestroying);
        Binder.restoreCallingIdentity(origId);
    }
    ...
}

16.2 serviceDoneExecutingLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

private void serviceDoneExecutingLocked(ServiceRecord r, boolean inDestroying,
        boolean finishing) {
    r.executeNesting--;
    if (r.executeNesting <= 0) {
        if (r.app != null) {
            r.app.execServicesFg = false;
            r.app.executingServices.remove(r);
            if (r.app.executingServices.size() == 0) {
                //移除服务启动超时的消息
                mAm.mHandler.removeMessages(ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG, r.app);
            } else if (r.executeFg) {
                ...
            }
            if (inDestroying) {
                mDestroyingServices.remove(r);
                r.bindings.clear();
            }
            mAm.updateOomAdjLocked(r.app);
        }
        r.executeFg = false;
        ...
        if (finishing) {
            if (r.app != null && !r.app.persistent) {
                r.app.services.remove(r);
            }
            r.app = null;
        }
    }
}

handleCreateService()执行后便会移除服务启动超时的消息SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG。 Service启动过程出现ANR,”executing service [发送超时serviceRecord信息]”, 这往往是service的onCreate()回调方法执行时间过长。

前面小节[10]realStartServiceLocked方法在完成onCreate操作,解析来便是进入onStartCommand方法. 见下文.

17. AS.sendServiceArgsLocked

[-> ActiveServices.java]

private final void sendServiceArgsLocked(ServiceRecord r, boolean execInFg,
        boolean oomAdjusted) throws TransactionTooLargeException {
    final int N = r.pendingStarts.size();
    if (N == 0) {
        return;
    }

    while (r.pendingStarts.size() > 0) {
        Exception caughtException = null;
        ServiceRecord.StartItem si;
        try {
            si = r.pendingStarts.remove(0);
            if (si.intent == null && N > 1) {
                continue;
            }
            si.deliveredTime = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
            r.deliveredStarts.add(si);
            si.deliveryCount++;
            if (si.neededGrants != null) {
                mAm.grantUriPermissionUncheckedFromIntentLocked(si.neededGrants,
                        si.getUriPermissionsLocked());
            }
            //标记启动开始【见10.1】
            bumpServiceExecutingLocked(r, execInFg, "start");
            if (!oomAdjusted) {
                oomAdjusted = true;
                mAm.updateOomAdjLocked(r.app);
            }
            int flags = 0;
            if (si.deliveryCount > 1) {
                flags |= Service.START_FLAG_RETRY;
            }
            if (si.doneExecutingCount > 0) {
                flags |= Service.START_FLAG_REDELIVERY;
            }
            //该过程类似[流程11~16],最终会调用onStartCommand
            r.app.thread.scheduleServiceArgs(r, si.taskRemoved, si.id, flags, si.intent);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            ...
            caughtException = e;
        }

        if (caughtException != null) {
            final boolean inDestroying = mDestroyingServices.contains(r);
            serviceDoneExecutingLocked(r, inDestroying, inDestroying);
            if (caughtException instanceof TransactionTooLargeException) {
                throw (TransactionTooLargeException)caughtException;
            }
            break;
        }
    }
}

[流程10]中的AS.realStartServiceLocked的过程先后依次执行如下方法:

  • 执行scheduleCreateService()方法,层层调用最终回调Service.onCreate(); [见流程11~16]
  • 执行scheduleServiceArgs()方法,层层调用最终回调Service.onStartCommand(); [见流程17],这两个过程类似,此处省略。

五、总结

5.1 流程说明

在整个startService过程,从进程角度看服务启动过程

  • Process A进程:是指调用startService命令所在的进程,也就是启动服务的发起端进程,比如点击桌面App图标,此处Process A便是Launcher所在进程。
  • system_server进程:系统进程,是java framework框架的核心载体,里面运行了大量的系统服务,比如这里提供ApplicationThreadProxy(简称ATP),ActivityManagerService(简称AMS),这个两个服务都运行在system_server进程的不同线程中,由于ATP和AMS都是基于IBinder接口,都是binder线程,binder线程的创建与销毁都是由binder驱动来决定的,每个进程binder线程个数的上限为16。
  • Zygote进程:是由init进程孵化而来的,用于创建Java层进程的母体,所有的Java层进程都是由Zygote进程孵化而来;
  • Remote Service进程:远程服务所在进程,是由Zygote进程孵化而来的用于运行Remote服务的进程。主线程主要负责Activity/Service等组件的生命周期以及UI相关操作都运行在这个线程; 另外,每个App进程中至少会有两个binder线程 ApplicationThread(简称AT)和ActivityManagerProxy(简称AMP),当然还有其他线程,这里不是重点就不提了。

start_service_process

图中涉及3种IPC通信方式:BinderSocket以及Handler,在图中分别用3种不同的颜色来代表这3种通信方式。一般来说,同一进程内的线程间通信采用的是 Handler消息队列机制,不同进程间的通信采用的是binder机制,另外与Zygote进程通信采用的Socket

启动流程:

  1. Process A进程采用Binder IPC向system_server进程发起startService请求;
  2. system_server进程接收到请求后,向zygote进程发送创建进程的请求;
  3. zygote进程fork出新的子进程Remote Service进程;
  4. Remote Service进程,通过Binder IPC向sytem_server进程发起attachApplication请求;
  5. system_server进程在收到请求后,进行一系列准备工作后,再通过binder IPC向remote Service进程发送scheduleCreateService请求;
  6. Remote Service进程的binder线程在收到请求后,通过handler向主线程发送CREATE_SERVICE消息;
  7. 主线程在收到Message后,通过发射机制创建目标Service,并回调Service.onCreate()方法。

到此,服务便正式启动完成。当创建的是本地服务或者服务所属进程已创建时,则无需经过上述步骤2、3,直接创建服务即可。

5.2 生命周期

startService的生命周期为onCreate, onStartCommand, onDestroy,流程如下图: 点击查看大图

service_lifeline

由上图可见,造成ANR可能的原因有Binder full{step 7, 12}, MessageQueue(step 10), AMS Lock (step 13).

当进程启动Service其所在进程还没有启动时, 需要先启动其目标进程,流程如下图: 点击查看大图

start_service_process


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